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          非洲國家致富秘訣(下)

          來源:可可英語 編輯:Leon ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
            


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          Between 2009 and 2018 Africa attracted just 14% of the industry’s total spending on exploration, despite containing perhaps 30% of the planet’s mineral wealth.

          2009年至2018年間,非洲僅吸引了該行業勘探總支出的14%,盡管非洲的礦產財富可能占全球的30%。

          Botswana has minimised “Dutch disease”, whereby resource exports cause the local currency to rise, making other exports less competitive.

          博茨瓦納已將“荷蘭病”(即資源出口導致本幣升值,降低其他出口產品競爭力的現象)降至最低。

          It has managed the value of the pula and set up a sovereign-wealth fund.

          它管理著普拉貨幣的價值,并建立了一個主權財富基金。

          Too many African countries have spent the proceeds of resource booms before they arrive.

          太多的非洲國家在資源繁榮到來之前就敗光了它們的收益。

          In Botswana a stabilisation fund helps smooth boom-and-bust cycles.

          在博茨瓦納,一個穩定基金可以幫助平穩繁榮與蕭條的周期。

          Like many African countries, Botswana has struggled to diversify its exports and foster manufacturing.

          像許多非洲國家一樣,博茨瓦納一直在努力實現出口多樣化和促進制造業發展。

          Both unemployment (25%) and income inequality (among the worst in the world) are high.

          失業率(25%)和收入不平等(世界最嚴重)都很高。

          Diamonds still make up more than 80% of export revenues.

          鉆石仍然占出口收入的80%以上。

          Yet whereas petrostates such as Nigeria and Angola have ploughed money into industrial white elephants, Botswana has invested in future sources of wealth, including education and infrastructure.

          然而,當尼日利亞和安哥拉等石油國家將資金投入到無用的工業項目時,博茨瓦納卻投資于未來的財富來源,包括教育和基礎設施建設。

          As new technology makes it possible to do more cutting and polishing in Botswana, rather than in India, the traditional hub, past investments in a skilled workforce will give it a chance to reap the rewards.

          排除傳統的中心樞紐印度后,新技術使得更多鉆石切割和拋光工作在博茨瓦納也能進行,過去對熟練勞動力的投資將使其有機會獲得回報。

          Better to have industrial strategies that build on existing strengths than try to conjure up new ones.

          在現有優勢的基礎上制定產業戰略,比試圖創造新的優勢要好。

          Copying Botswana is not straightforward.

          復制博茨瓦納案例并非易事。

          Diamonds are not a typical commodity and it is not a typical African country.

          鉆石不是一種典型的商品,博茨瓦納也不是一個典型的非洲國家。

          Thanks to a trio of astute chiefs who petitioned Britain more than a century ago, the then Bechuanaland became a protectorate, not a colony.

          多虧了三個精明的酋長在一個多世紀前向英國請愿,使得當時的貝古納蘭成為了一個受保護國,而不是殖民地。

          It thus avoided some of the traumas of imperialism.

          因此,它避免了一些帝國主義帶來的創傷。

          (“I do object to being beaten by three canting natives,” harrumphed Cecil Rhodes at the time.)

          (當時塞西爾·羅茲憤憤不平地說:“我確實反對被三個偽善的當地人毆打?!?

          Its modern government was built on relatively pluralistic traditional institutions.

          它的現代政府是建立在相對多元化的傳統制度之上的。

          Worryingly, under Ian Khama, the previous president, and Mokgweetsi Masisi, the current one, Botswana has shown signs of forgetting the secrets of its own success.

          令人擔憂的是,在前任總統伊恩·卡馬和現任總統莫科維特斯·馬西西的領導下,博茨瓦納已經開始逐漸忘記自己成功的秘訣了。

          Economic populism, protectionism and abuses of power are creeping in.

          經濟民粹主義、保護主義和濫用權力正在悄然蔓延。

          Yet its history shows that getting the basics right goes a long way.

          然而,它的歷史表明,讓基本政策恢復正常有很長的路要走。

          Diamonds may not be for ever, but the benefits of sound policy can be.

          鉆石可能不會永遠存在,但合理政策的好處可以永存。

          重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
          inequality [.ini'kwɔliti]

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          n. 不平等,不平均,差異,多變性,不等式

           
          current ['kʌrənt]

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          n. (水、氣、電)流,趨勢
          adj. 流通的

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          straightforward [streit'fɔ:wəd]

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          adj. 筆直的,率直的

           
          trio ['tri:əu]

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          n. 三個一組,三重唱(奏)

           
          planet ['plænit]

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          n. 行星

           
          typical ['tipikəl]

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          adj. 典型的,有代表性的,特有的,獨特的

           
          unemployment ['ʌnim'plɔimənt]

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          n. 失業,失業人數

           
          diversify [dai'və:sifai]

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          v. 使成形形色色,使多樣化,使變化

           
          competitive [kəm'petitiv]

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          adj. 競爭的,比賽的

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          colony ['kɔləni]

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          n. 殖民地,僑民,僑居地,聚居(地), 群體,菌落

           
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