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          讓人頭疼的法律術語(上)

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          “The first thing we do, let’s kill all the lawyers,” is one of Shakespeare’s most memorable lines.

          “我們所為最要緊之事,乃是干掉所有律師?!边@是莎士比亞最令人難忘的詩句之一。

          You would struggle to find such a line in the writings of lawyers themselves—and not just because they would, presumably, disagree.

          你很難在律師們自己的著作中找到這樣的句子——不僅僅是因為他們可能不同意。

          Though some judges are sophisticated stylists, most legal language is fussy, tangled and incapable of producing anything so pithy.

          盡管有些法官是老練的文體家,但大多數法律語言都是繁瑣、糾結的,他們無法寫出如此精辟的內容。

          (This is no doubt one reason so many people want to kill all the lawyers.)

          (這無疑是許多人想干掉所有律師的原因之一。)

          But do lawyers write that way to impress, to bewilder—or perhaps because they must?

          但律師們這樣寫是為了給人留下深刻印象,還是為了迷惑人——或者是因為他們必須這樣寫嗎?

          In a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Eric Martinez and his colleagues from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Edinburgh tried to find out.

          在《美國國家科學院院刊》上發表的一項研究中,來自麻省理工學院和愛丁堡大學的埃里克·馬丁內斯和他的同事們試圖找到答案。

          Contracts written in “legalese”, as well as simplified versions conveying identical concepts, were shown to American lawyers and laypeople.

          用“法律術語”書寫的合同,以及表達相同概念的簡化版本,都被展示給了美國律師和外行。

          It turns out that lawyers struggle with, and dislike, legal language almost as much as their clients.

          事實證明,律師和他們的客戶一樣,對法律語言感到糾結和厭惡。

          Legalese is heavy on “centre-embedding”, sentences in which related words are separated by a long insertion,

          法律用語偏重于“中心嵌入”,在句子中,相關的單詞被一個很長的插入語分隔開,

          as in “It is understood by artist and company that comprehensive liability insurance, protecting against any claim or demand up to $300,000, including attorney’s fees, related to company’s actions under this venue agreement, shall be purchased and maintained throughout the agreement by company.”

          如“藝人和公司達成共識,公司應購買并在整個協議期間維護全面責任保險,以避免任何高達30萬美元的索賠,包括律師費?!?/p>

          This puts a heavy strain on the brain’s working memory.

          這給大腦運作的記憶力帶來了沉重的壓力。

          The word “insurance” must be held in the mind while some 20 other words go by before its attendant verb phrase “shall be purchased” arrives.

          “保險”這個詞必須在腦海中記住,而在它的動詞短語“應該購買”出現之前,還有大約20個其他單詞。

          Another baleful feature of legal writing is jargon: uncommon words like hereinbefore, mala fides and lessor.

          另一個法律寫作令人討厭的特點是行話:不常見的詞,如“上文”、“惡意”和“出租人”。

          These mean little more than above, bad faith and landlord.

          這些詞匯的意思僅僅是:上面所說的,不誠實和地主。

          Even if most lawyers and many laypeople know the jargon, the words require more effort to recall than everyday ones.

          即使大多數律師和許多外行都知道這些行話,記住這些詞也會比記日常用語耗費更多的努力。

          重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
          memorable ['memərəbl]

          想一想再看

          adj. 值得紀念的,難忘的

           
          insertion [in'sə:ʃən]

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          n. 插入,插入物

          聯想記憶
          impress [im'pres]

          想一想再看

          n. 印象,特徵,印記
          v. 使 ... 有印

          聯想記憶
          tangled ['tæŋɡld]

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          adj. 紊亂的;糾纏的;纏結的;復雜的

           
          institute ['institju:t]

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          n. 學會,學院,協會
          vt. 創立,開始,制

          聯想記憶
          comprehensive [.kɔmpri'hensiv]

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          adj. 綜合的,廣泛的,理解的

          聯想記憶
          insurance [in'ʃuərəns]

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          n. 保險,保險費,安全措施

          聯想記憶
          sophisticated [sə'fistikeitid]

          想一想再看

          adj. 詭辯的,久經世故的,精密的,老練的,尖端的

          聯想記憶
          attendant [ə'tendənt]

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          adj. 伴隨的
          n. 服務員,侍從,伴隨物,

          聯想記憶
          separated ['sepəreitid]

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          adj. 分居;分開的;不在一起生活的 v. 分開;隔開

           
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